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Journal of Human Evoution 50, 78— Diet in early Homo: Annual Review of Anthropology 35, Early Homo had smaller teeth than Australopithecus , but their tooth enamel was still thick and their jaws were still strong, indicating their teeth were still adapted chewing some hard foods possibly only seasonally when their preferred foods became less available.
Dental microwear studies suggest that the diet of H. Another line of evidence for the diet of H. This species , along with H.
Many scientists think it is an ancestor of later species of Homo , possibly on our own branch of the family tree. Naming this species required a redefining of the genus Homo e.
While scientists used to think that H. This fossil is one of the most complete skulls of this species , best known from the Turkana Basin and Olduvai Gorge in East Africa.
It is likely from a female, and had a small brain size for H. Its third molars had erupted, so we know it was an adult at death, yet the molars show no sign of wear, indicating that this individual probably died soon after their eruption.
By this time, the feet of early humans had a modern-type arch. Want to read about the evidence that this individual was attacked by a crocodile?
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Begun  concluded that early primates flourished in Eurasia and that a lineage leading to the African apes and humans, including to Dryopithecus , migrated south from Europe or Western Asia into Africa.
The surviving tropical population of primates—which is seen most completely in the Upper Eocene and lowermost Oligocene fossil beds of the Faiyum depression southwest of Cairo —gave rise to all extant primate species, including the lemurs of Madagascar , lorises of Southeast Asia, galagos or "bush babies" of Africa, and to the anthropoids , which are the Platyrrhines or New World monkeys, the Catarrhines or Old World monkeys, and the great apes, including humans and other hominids.
The earliest known catarrhine is Kamoyapithecus from uppermost Oligocene at Eragaleit in the northern Great Rift Valley in Kenya, dated to 24 million years ago.
In the Early Miocene , about 22 million years ago, the many kinds of arboreally adapted primitive catarrhines from East Africa suggest a long history of prior diversification.
Fossils at 20 million years ago include fragments attributed to Victoriapithecus , the earliest Old World monkey. Among the genera thought to be in the ape lineage leading up to 13 million years ago are Proconsul , Rangwapithecus , Dendropithecus , Limnopithecus , Nacholapithecus , Equatorius , Nyanzapithecus , Afropithecus , Heliopithecus , and Kenyapithecus , all from East Africa.
The presence of other generalized non-cercopithecids of Middle Miocene from sites far distant— Otavipithecus from cave deposits in Namibia, and Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus from France , Spain and Austria —is evidence of a wide diversity of forms across Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the relatively warm and equable climatic regimes of the Early and Middle Miocene.
The youngest of the Miocene hominoids, Oreopithecus , is from coal beds in Italy that have been dated to 9 million years ago.
Molecular evidence indicates that the lineage of gibbons family Hylobatidae diverged from the line of great apes some 18—12 million years ago, and that of orangutans subfamily Ponginae diverged from the other great apes at about 12 million years; there are no fossils that clearly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a so-far-unknown South East Asian hominoid population, but fossil proto-orangutans may be represented by Sivapithecus from India and Griphopithecus from Turkey , dated to around 10 million years ago.
Species close to the last common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus found in Greece.
Molecular evidence suggests that between 8 and 4 million years ago, first the gorillas, and then the chimpanzees genus Pan split off from the line leading to the humans.
Human DNA is approximately The fossil record, however, of gorillas and chimpanzees is limited; both poor preservation—rain forest soils tend to be acidic and dissolve bone—and sampling bias probably contribute to this problem.
Other hominins probably adapted to the drier environments outside the equatorial belt; and there they encountered antelope, hyenas, dogs, pigs, elephants, horses, and others.
The equatorial belt contracted after about 8 million years ago, and there is very little fossil evidence for the split—thought to have occurred around that time—of the hominin lineage from the lineages of gorillas and chimpanzees.
The earliest fossils argued by some to belong to the human lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 Ma and Orrorin tugenensis 6 Ma , followed by Ardipithecus 5.
It has been argued in a study of the life history of Ar. It was also argued that the species provides support for the notion that very early hominins, akin to bonobos Pan paniscus the less aggressive species of chimpanzee, may have evolved via the process of self-domestication.
Consequently, arguing against the so-called "chimpanzee referential model"  the authors suggest it is no longer tenable to use common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes social and mating behaviors in models of early hominin social evolution.
When commenting on the absence of aggressive canine morphology in Ar. However, the fact that Ar. In fact the trend towards increased maternal care, female mate selection and self-domestication may have been stronger and more refined in Ar.
The authors argue that many of the basic human adaptations evolved in the ancient forest and woodland ecosystems of late Miocene and early Pliocene Africa.
Consequently, they argue that humans may not represent evolution from a chimpanzee-like ancestor as has traditionally been supposed.
This suggests many modern human adaptations represent phylogenetically deep traits and that the behavior and morphology of chimpanzees may have evolved subsequent to the split with the common ancestor they share with humans.
The genus Australopithecus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago.
During this time period various forms of australopiths existed, including Australopithecus anamensis , Au. There is still some debate among academics whether certain African hominid species of this time, such as Au.
However, if these species do indeed constitute their own genus, then they may be given their own name, the Paranthropus.
A new proposed species Australopithecus deyiremeda is claimed to have been discovered living at the same time period of Au.
There is debate if Au. The earliest documented representative of the genus Homo is Homo habilis , which evolved around 2. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee , although it has been suggested that this was the time in which the human SRGAP2 gene doubled, producing a more rapid wiring of the frontal cortex.
It is believed that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first to use fire and complex tools, and were the first of the hominin line to leave Africa, spreading throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.
According to the recent African origin of modern humans theory, modern humans evolved in Africa possibly from Homo heidelbergensis , Homo rhodesiensis or Homo antecessor and migrated out of the continent some 50, to , years ago, gradually replacing local populations of Homo erectus , Denisova hominins , Homo floresiensis and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo sapiens is the only extant species of its genus, Homo. While some extinct Homo species might have been ancestors of Homo sapiens , many, perhaps most, were likely "cousins", having speciated away from the ancestral hominin line.
Based on archaeological and paleontological evidence, it has been possible to infer, to some extent, the ancient dietary practices  of various Homo species and to study the role of diet in physical and behavioral evolution within Homo.
Some anthropologists and archaeologists subscribe to the Toba catastrophe theory , which posits that the supereruption of Lake Toba on Sumatran island in Indonesia some 70, years ago caused global consequences,  killing the majority of humans and creating a population bottleneck that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today.
Homo habilis lived from about 2. Homo habilis had smaller molars and larger brains than the australopithecines, and made tools from stone and perhaps animal bones.
One of the first known hominins was nicknamed 'handy man' by discoverer Louis Leakey due to its association with stone tools. Some scientists have proposed moving this species out of Homo and into Australopithecus due to the morphology of its skeleton being more adapted to living on trees rather than to moving on two legs like Homo sapiens.
In May , a new species, Homo gautengensis , was discovered in South Africa. These are proposed species names for fossils from about 1.
The first fossils of Homo erectus were discovered by Dutch physician Eugene Dubois in on the Indonesian island of Java.
He originally named the material Anthropopithecus erectus , considered at this point as a chimpanzee-like fossil primate and Pithecanthropus erectus , changing his mind as of based on its morphology, which he considered to be intermediate between that of humans and apes.
Weidenreich concluded in that because of their anatomical similarity with modern humans it was necessary to gather all these specimens of Java and China in a single species of the genus Homo , the species Homo erectus.
The early phase of Homo erectus , from 1. In Africa in the Early Pleistocene, 1. This species also may have used fire to cook meat. Richard Wrangham suggests that the fact that Homo seems to have been ground dwelling, with reduced intestinal length, smaller dentition, "and swelled our brains to their current, horrendously fuel-inefficient size",  suggest that control of fire and releasing increased nutritional value through cooking was the key adaptation that separated Homo from tree-sleeping Australopithecines.
Many paleoanthropologists now use the term Homo ergaster for the non-Asian forms of this group, and reserve Homo erectus only for those fossils that are found in Asia and meet certain skeletal and dental requirements which differ slightly from H.
These are proposed as species that may be intermediate between H. Also proposed as Homo sapiens heidelbergensis or Homo sapiens paleohungaricus.
Homo neanderthalensis , alternatively designated as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis ,  lived in Europe and Asia from ,  to about 28, years ago.
Many of these relate to the superior adaptation to cold environments possessed by the Neanderthal populations. Their surface to volume ratio is an extreme version of that found amongst Inuit populations, indicating that they were less inclined to lose body heat than were AMH.
From brain Endocasts, Neanderthals also had significantly larger brains. This would seem to indicate that the intellectual superiority of AMH populations may be questionable.
Dunbar, however, have shown important differences in Brain architecture. For example, in both the orbital chamber size and in the size of the occipital lobe , the larger size suggests that the Neanderthal had a better visual acuity than modern humans.
This would give a superior vision in the inferior light conditions found in Glacial Europe. It also seems that the higher body mass of Neanderthals had a correspondingly larger brain mass required for body care and control.
The Neanderthal populations seem to have been physically superior to AMH populations. These differences may have been sufficient to give Neanderthal populations an environmental superiority to AMH populations from 75, to 45, years BP.
With these differences, Neanderthal brains show a smaller area was available for social functioning. Plotting group size possible from endocrainial volume, suggests that AMH populations minus occipital lobe size , had a Dunbars number of possible relationships.
Neanderthal populations seem to have been limited to about individuals. This would show up in a larger number of possible mates for AMH humans, with increased risks of inbreeding amongst Neanderthal populations.
It also suggests that humans had larger trade catchment areas than Neanderthals confirmed in the distribution of stone tools.
With larger populations, social and technological innovations were easier to fix in human populations, which may have all contributed to the fact that modern Homo sapiens replaced the Neanderthal populations by 28, BP.
Earlier evidence from sequencing mitochondrial DNA suggested that no significant gene flow occurred between H. Though this interbred Romanian population seems not to have been ancestral to modern humans, the finding indicates that interbreeding happened repeatedly.
In , archaeologists working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia uncovered a small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile member of Denisovans.
While the divergence point of the mtDNA was unexpectedly deep in time,  the full genomic sequence suggested the Denisovans belonged to the same lineage as Neanderthals, with the two diverging shortly after their line split from the lineage that gave rise to modern humans.
The existence of this distant branch creates a much more complex picture of humankind during the Late Pleistocene than previously thought. Alleles thought to have originated in Neanderthals and Denisovans have been identified at several genetic loci in the genomes of modern humans outside of Africa.
HLA haplotypes from Denisovans and Neanderthal represent more than half the HLA alleles of modern Eurasians,  indicating strong positive selection for these introgressed alleles.
Corinne Simoneti at Vanderbilt University, in Nashville and her team have found from medical records of 28, people of European descent that the presence of Neanderthal DNA segments may be associated with a likelihood to suffer depression more frequently.
The flow of genes from Neanderthal populations to modern human was not all one way. Sergi Castellano of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has in reported that while Denisovan and Neanderthal genomes are more related to each other than they are to us, Siberian Neanderthal genomes show similarity to the modern human gene pool, more so than to European Neanderthal populations.
The evidence suggests that the Neanderthal populations interbred with modern humans possibly , years ago, probably somewhere in the Near East.
Studies of a Neanderthal child at Gibraltar show from brain development and teeth eruption that Neanderthal children may have matured more rapidly than is the case for Homo sapiens.
In other words, H. The main find was a skeleton believed to be a woman of about 30 years of age. Found in , it has been dated to approximately 18, years old.
However, there is an ongoing debate over whether H. This, coupled with pathological dwarfism, could have resulted in a significantly diminutive human.
The other major attack on H. The hypothesis of pathological dwarfism, however, fails to explain additional anatomical features that are unlike those of modern humans diseased or not but much like those of ancient members of our genus.
Aside from cranial features, these features include the form of bones in the wrist, forearm, shoulder, knees, and feet. Additionally, this hypothesis fails to explain the find of multiple examples of individuals with these same characteristics, indicating they were common to a large population, and not limited to one individual.
The direct evidence suggests there was a migration of H. A subsequent migration both within and out of Africa eventually replaced the earlier dispersed H.
This migration and origin theory is usually referred to as the "recent single-origin hypothesis" or "out of Africa" theory.
The Toba catastrophe theory , which postulates a population bottleneck for H. The use of tools has been interpreted as a sign of intelligence, and it has been theorized that tool use may have stimulated certain aspects of human evolution, especially the continued expansion of the human brain.
The brain of a modern human consumes about 13 watts kilocalories per day , a fifth of the body's resting power consumption. Researchers have suggested that early hominins were thus under evolutionary pressure to increase their capacity to create and use tools.
Precisely when early humans started to use tools is difficult to determine, because the more primitive these tools are for example, sharp-edged stones the more difficult it is to decide whether they are natural objects or human artifacts.
Many species make and use tools , but it is the human genus that dominates the areas of making and using more complex tools.
The oldest known tools are flakes from West Turkana, Kenya, which date to 3. These tools date to about 2. It is a possibility but does not yet represent solid evidence.
It allows humans the dexterity and strength to make and use complex tools. This unique anatomical feature separates humans from apes and other nonhuman primates, and is not seen in human fossils older than 1.
Bernard Wood noted that Paranthropus co-existed with the early Homo species in the area of the "Oldowan Industrial Complex" over roughly the same span of time.
Although there is no direct evidence which identifies Paranthropus as the tool makers, their anatomy lends to indirect evidence of their capabilities in this area.
Most paleoanthropologists agree that the early Homo species were indeed responsible for most of the Oldowan tools found. They argue that when most of the Oldowan tools were found in association with human fossils, Homo was always present, but Paranthropus was not.
In , Randall Susman used the anatomy of opposable thumbs as the basis for his argument that both the Homo and Paranthropus species were toolmakers.
He compared bones and muscles of human and chimpanzee thumbs, finding that humans have 3 muscles which are lacking in chimpanzees.
Humans also have thicker metacarpals with broader heads, allowing more precise grasping than the chimpanzee hand can perform.
Susman posited that modern anatomy of the human opposable thumb is an evolutionary response to the requirements associated with making and handling tools and that both species were indeed toolmakers.
Stone tools are first attested around 2. Archaeologists working in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya have discovered the oldest known stone tools in the world.
Dated to around 3. The period from ,—, years ago is also known as the Acheulean , when H. After , BP the more refined so-called Levallois technique was developed, a series of consecutive strikes, by which scrapers, slicers "racloirs" , needles, and flattened needles were made.
In this period they also started to make tools out of bone. Until about 50,—40, years ago, the use of stone tools seems to have progressed stepwise.
Currently paleoanthropologists are debating whether these Homo species possessed some or many of the cultural and behavioral traits associated with modern humans such as language, complex symbolic thinking, technological creativity etc.
It seems that they were culturally conservative maintaining simple technologies and foraging patterns over very long periods. Around 50, BP, modern human culture started to evolve more rapidly.
The transition to behavioral modernity has been characterized by most as a Eurasian "Great Leap Forward",  or as the "Upper Palaeolithic Revolution",  due to the sudden appearance of distinctive signs of modern behavior and big game hunting  in the archaeological record.
Some other scholars consider the transition to have been more gradual, noting that some features had already appeared among archaic African Homo sapiens since , years ago.
Modern humans started burying their dead, using animal hides to make clothing, hunting with more sophisticated techniques such as using trapping pits or driving animals off cliffs , and engaging in cave painting.
Among concrete examples of modern human behavior , anthropologists include specialization of tools, use of jewellery and images such as cave drawings , organization of living space, rituals for example, burials with grave gifts , specialized hunting techniques, exploration of less hospitable geographical areas, and barter trade networks.
Debate continues as to whether a "revolution" led to modern humans "the big bang of human consciousness" , or whether the evolution was more "gradual".
Evolution has continued in anatomically modern human populations, which are affected by both natural selection and genetic drift.
Although selection pressure on some traits, such as resistance to smallpox, has decreased in modern human life, humans are still undergoing natural selection for many other traits.
Some of these are due to specific environmental pressures, while others are related to lifestyle changes since the development of agriculture 10, years ago , urban civilization 5, , and industrialization years ago.
It has been argued that human evolution has accelerated since the development of agriculture 10, years ago and civilization some 5, years ago, resulting, it is claimed, in substantial genetic differences between different current human populations.
Particularly conspicuous is variation in superficial characteristics, such as Afro-textured hair , or the recent evolution of light skin and blond hair in some populations, which are attributed to differences in climate.
Particularly strong selective pressures have resulted in high-altitude adaptation in humans , with different ones in different isolated populations.
Studies of the genetic basis show that some developed very recently, with Tibetans evolving over 3, years to have high proportions of an allele of EPAS1 that is adaptive to high altitudes.
Other evolution is related to endemic diseases: For example, the population at risk of the severe debilitating disease kuru has significant over-representation of an immune variant of the prion protein gene GV versus non-immune alleles.
The frequency of this genetic variant is due to the survival of immune persons. Recent human evolution related to agriculture includes genetic resistance to infectious disease that has appeared in human populations by crossing the species barrier from domesticated animals,  as well as changes in metabolism due to changes in diet, such as lactase persistence.
In contemporary times, since industrialization, some trends have been observed: This list is in chronological order across the table by genus.
Please see articles for more information. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Hominid evolution. Evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of anatomically modern humans.
Life timeline and Nature timeline. A global mapping model of human migration, based from divergence of the mitochondrial DNA which indicates the matrilineage.
A "trellis" as Milford H. Wolpoff called it that emphasizes back-and-forth gene flow among geographic regions. Different models for the beginning of the present human species.
Early human migrations , Recent African origin of modern humans , Multiregional origin of modern humans , and Early hominids in Southeast Asia.
Human evolutionary genetics and Human genetic variation. Interbreeding between archaic and modern humans. For evolutionary history before primates, see Evolution of mammals , Evolutionary history of life , and Timeline of human evolution.
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Homo. Control of fire by early humans. Evolutionary Biology , October Scientific American , May Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology.
The Impact of Altitude and Activity Scheduling". Journal of Human Evolution. Evolutionary biologists consider menopause".
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American Heritage Dictionaries editors More Word Histories and Mysteries: From Aardvark to Zombie. The Anthropology of Medicine: From Culture to Method 3rd ed.
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Heidelberg; London; New York: Diet in early Homo: Annual Review of Anthropology 35, Early Homo had smaller teeth than Australopithecus , but their tooth enamel was still thick and their jaws were still strong, indicating their teeth were still adapted chewing some hard foods possibly only seasonally when their preferred foods became less available.
Dental microwear studies suggest that the diet of H. Another line of evidence for the diet of H. This species , along with H. Many scientists think it is an ancestor of later species of Homo , possibly on our own branch of the family tree.
Naming this species required a redefining of the genus Homo e. While scientists used to think that H.
This fossil is one of the most complete skulls of this species , best known from the Turkana Basin and Olduvai Gorge in East Africa.
It is likely from a female, and had a small brain size for H. Its third molars had erupted, so we know it was an adult at death, yet the molars show no sign of wear, indicating that this individual probably died soon after their eruption.
By this time, the feet of early humans had a modern-type arch. Want to read about the evidence that this individual was attacked by a crocodile? I Came From Where?The Fates of Human Societies. Evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of anatomically modern humans. Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humansbeginning with the evolutionary history of primates — fußballergebnisse niedersachsen particular genus Homo — and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid familythe great apes. It is believed that these species, H. Please see articles for more information. This, coupled with pathological dwarfism, could have resulted in a significantly diminutive human. The Human Genome Diversity Project: The fossils were dated close toyears ago,  and thus are not a direct ancestor but a contemporary with the first appearance of larger-brained anatomically modern humans. One of the first known hominins was nicknamed 'handy man' by discoverer Louis Leakey due to its association with stone tools. Homo habilis lived from spotlight englisch 2. Each of these have been argued to be a bipedal ancestor of later hominins but, in each case, the claims have been contested.